Daldinia eschscholtzii (Ehrenb.) Rehm [as ‘eschscholzii’], Annls mycol. 2: 175 (1904)

Index Fungorum number: IF544992; Facesoffungi number: FoF02990; Figs. 75, 76

Saprobic on Tamarindus indica. Sexual morph: Ascostromata 4 cm wide superficial, placentiform, superficial extracts give purple pigments in 10% KOH, interperithecial brown spongy tissue, column, ostiolated neck, narrow towards down, peridium wall 13.8 μm wide, with brown to hyaline, textura epidermoidea and angularis cell layers. Paraphyses septate, branched, 3.4 μm wide, long, sparely present. Asci 139.5–176.4 × 7.4–11.9.7 μm ( = 161.9× 9.7, n = 25), 8–spored, unitunicate, cylindrical, tapering below towards pedicel with a J+ apical ring, smooth-walled, long pedicellate, persistent. Ascospores 11.2–12.9 × 6.14–7.7 μm ( = 11.9 × 6.8, n = 25), hyaline to brown and dirty brown at maturity, ovoid, straight germslit, obtuse ends, bilateral asymmetry, with a single guttule, and dehiscing, smooth-walled perispore.

Culture characteristics Colonies on malt extract agar, brown, laterally white edged, raised at centre, filamentous, reverse black at the centre, white towards edges, producing conidia. Asexual morph: colonies on MEA, Conidiogenous cells 12.8–19 × 2.6 μm ( = 15.3, n = 25), polyblastic, cylindrical, narrow apex. Conidia 5.2–7.4 × 2.5–3.8 μm ( = 6 × 3.1, n = 25), hyaline, obovoid, blunt ended, smooth-walled.

Material examined India, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, South Andaman, Manjery, Near Amber Sunset Point (11˚51’68.6”N 92˚65’38.8”E), on Tamarindus indica, 10 December 2017, M. Niranjan, PUFNI 1761 (AMH-10066), living culture, NFCC 4365; India, South Andaman, Manjery (11°52’68″N 92°64’74″E), on unidentified twig, 11 December 2017, M. Niranjan (T101F1); India, Middle Andaman, Mayabunder (12˚49’15” N 92˚51’02”E), on unidentified twig, 07 January 2017, (T95F2).

GenBank numbers ITS: MK990277, LSU: MK981541.

Known distribution (based on molecular data) – Africa, America Asia, Europe and Australia (Brazil, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Papua New Guinea, South Africa, Thailand, USA, Western Samoa) (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore).

Known hosts (based on molecular data) – Ficus sp., Musa sp., Tamarindus indica, Bucida palustris, Sizygium jambos, Eucalyptus alba, Sizygium jambos, Bucida palustris, Citrus sp. Jambosa vulgaris, Mangifera indica, Neohypodiscus cerebrinus, Cordia sebastina, Pogostemon cablin, Brguiera sexangula, Cocos nucifera, Excoecaria agallocha, Dendrobium officinale, Gliricidia sepium and also found on Xestospongia sponge species (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore).

Notes Daldinia eschscholtzii is a plant pathogenic fungus associated with a wide range of agricultural and native plants. Stromata can be found on both angiosperm and gymnosperm wooden logs, but mostly on dicotyledonous wood (Yuyama et al. 2013, Stadler et al. 2014). Daldinia eschscholtzii of our collection has smaller stromata, and smaller asci and ascospores (Fig. 75), when compared to the type (Stadler et al. 2014). The nodulisporium-like anamorph also has been found in culture (Fig. 76). The present collection forms a new record to Andaman and Nicobar islands.

Fig.  Sexual morph of Daldinia eschscholtzii (NFCC 4365, a new host record). a, b Stromata on decaying host. c Vertical section of stroma. f Ascospores. d Purple colour in 10% KOH. e Textura angularis cells. g Textura oblita cells. i Paraphyses. h–k Asci. Scale bars: e, k = 50 μm, g–j = 20 μm. f, g = 10 μm.

Fig. Asexual morph of Daldinia eschscholtzii (NFCC 4365, a new host record). a, b Culture in MEA plate. c Germinating spore. d–i Conidiophores. j Conidia. Scale bars: d–e = 20 μm. c, f–j = 10 μm.