Cylindrotorula indica Rajeshkumar, Wijayaw., Bhat, N. Ashtekar & S. Lad, sp. nov.

Index Fungorum number: IF557636; Facesoffungi number: FoF 08025; Figs. 73, 74, 75

Etymology: Named after India, the country where this fungus is native.

Holotype: AMH 10228

Saprobic on decaying Cocos nucifera spathe. Sexual morph Undetermined. Asexual morph Hyphomycetous. Conidiomata sporodochial, scattered, greyish, dark greyish brown or dark brown. Conidiophores micronematous, mon- onematous, reduced, cylindrical, smooth, erect, unbranched or rarely branched, 0–1-septate, 3.5–12 × 2.8–4 μm. Conid- iogenous cells cylindrical or button-shaped, form primary and secondary conidia. Primary conidia arising holoblastically, elongated, cylindrical, wavy or undulated or flexuous, smooth at base, verruculose above, pale to dark-brown, unbranched, phragmo-septate, 5–10-septate, 68–125 × 3–4.5 μm. Sec- ondary conidia two types, globose and cylindrical or fin- ger-shaped, arising from primary conidia at intercalary, monotretic, non-cicatrized conidiogenous loci, globose or elongated, slightly curved, aseptate, smooth, verrucose or verruculose, thin-walled, brown. Micrometry globose sec- ondary conidia, 3.5–5 × 3.5–5 μm, cylindrical or finger-shaped conidia, 9.5–30 × 2.5–3.5 μm.

Culture characteristics: Colonies on MEA at 25 ± 2 °C reaching 30–35 mm diam. after 1 month; initially aerial mycelium white to brownish grey (4D2), velutinous, in old cultures brownish grey (4D2) with olive grey (4E4) mar- gin; reverse dark grey (4F1). Soluble pigments and exudates absent. Colour codes and names used in descriptions are from Kornerup and Wanscher (1978).

Material examined: INDIA, Maharashtra, Thane (19°13′13″ N 72°57′17″ E, ± 23 msl), on decaying spathe of Cocos nucifera (Arecacceae), July 2018, K.C. Rajeshkumar and S. Lad, AMH 10228 (holotype), ex-type living culture NFCCI 4836; ibid., NFCCI 4837.

GenBank numbers: NFCCI 4836: ITS = MT339444, LSU =MT339442, RPB2 =MT321490, TEF1-α =MT321492; NFCCI 4837: ITS = MT339445, LSU = MT339443, RPB2 = MT321491, TEF1-α = MT321493.

Dendryphion Wallr.

Notes: Dendryphion was introduced by Wallroth (1833) and is typified by Dendryphion comosum Wallr. The genus is characterized by having erect, solitary, polytretic conidi- ophores, branched in upper part, forming septate, pigmented, thick-walled, finely roughened stipe and a distinct conidiog- enous apparatus, with dark scars and catenate, in simple or branched chains of brown, septate (didymo- or cheiro) conidia (Crous et al. 2015; Su et al. 2016, 2018; Li et al. 2020a). Spe- cies of Dendryphion are saprobic on dead stems of herbaceous plants and decaying wood, and also grows on submerged decaying wood in freshwater habitats (Su et al. 2016, 2018; Li et al. 2020a). There are 85 Dendryphion epithets listed in Index Fungorum (2021) but only 36 species are accepted in Dendryphion (Species Fungorum 2021), and only seven spe- cies have DNA sequences available in the GenBank database.

Fig. 73 Cylindrotorula indica (AMH 10228, holotype). ad Sporodochial conidiomata on natural substrate. Scale bars: ad = 100 µm

Fig. 74 Cylindrotorula indica (AMH 10228, holotype). ac SEM of conidiomata showing conidiophores and primary conidia. d Cylin- drical elongated primary conidium. e Globose secondary conidium. f Base of primary conidium. g Secondary conidial development of primary conidia. Scale bars: a, c, d, g = 2 µm, b = 1 µm, e = 200 nm, f = 1 µm

Fig. 75 Cylindrotorula indica (AMH 10228, holotype). a, b Sporo- dochial conidiomata. cg Primary conidia with monotretic secondary conidia. h, i Dark thick hilum of primary conidia. j, k Pleomorphic secondary conidia. l, m Monotretic secondary conidial develop- ment. n, o Branched conidiophore with primary conidia. Scale bars: ao = 10 µm

Species