Conlariaceae H. Zhang, K.D. Hyde & Maharachch., Fungal Divers. 85: 90 (2017)

Index Fungorum number: IF553758; 7 species.

Saprobic on submerged decaying wood in freshwater or grow on soil in terrestrial habitats. Sexual morph: Ascomata perithecioid, gregarious, coriaceous or membranous, immersed to erumpent or superficial, dark brown to black, globose to subglobose, smooth, ostiolate. Neck short or elongated, cylindrical, straight or slightly flexuous. Peridium composed of several layers of cells of textura angularis. Paraphyses cylindrical or globose, hyaline, septate. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, cylindrical, short pedicellate, apically rounded, with a distinct, refractive, massive, barrel-shaped, apical ring or lacking apical structures. Ascospores uni- to bi-seriate, hyaline, fusiform or ellipsoidal-fusiform, straight or slightly curved, aseptate to multi-septate, guttulate, thin- or thick-walled, with or without appendages or appendages at one or both ends or surrounded by an irregular gelatinous sheath. Asexual morph: Hyphomycetous. Colonies dark brown to black. Mycelium mostly immersed, consisting of branched, septate, thin-walled, smooth, pale brown to brown hyphae. Conidiophores micronematous or semi-macronematous, mononematous, septate or aseptate, unbranched or irregularly branched, straight or flexuous, hyaline, becoming brown when old. Conidiogenous cells holoblastic, determinate, doliiform, cylindrical. Conidia brown, muriform, irregularly globose or subglobose, septate, constricted at the septa.

Type genus – Conlarium F. Liu & L. Cai

Notes – Conlariaceae was introduced in a new order Atractosporales by Zhang et al. (2017a) for a single genus Conlarium which comprised C. aquaticum and C. dupliciascosporum. Asexual morphs of the family were found in the culture of C. dupliciascosporum (Liu et al. 2012), on natural decaying submerged wood (Zhang et al. 2017a) and dead wood or soil in terrestrial habitat (Phookamsak et al. 2019, Xie et al. 2019). Another genus Riomyces is included in the family based on our phylogenetic analyses (Fig. 3), and previous study (Luo et al. 2019). The phylogeny and morphology warranted a new family (Zhang et al. 2017a).

Ecological and economic significance of Conlariaceae

Conlariaceae currently comprises two genera Conlarium and Riomyces with seven species which are saprobic on submerged wood and dead wood or soil. They have so far been reported from China, Costa Rica and Thailand (Ferrer et al. 2012, Liu et al. 2012, Zhang et al. 2017a, Phookamsak et al. 2019, Xie et al. 2019). They are important plant decomposers involved in nutrient cycling.