Bipolaris Shoemaker, Can. J. Bot. 37(5): 882 (1959)
= Cochliobolus Drechsler, Phytopathology 24: 973 (1934)
Pathogenic or saprobic on wood and dead herbaceous stems or leaves. Sexual morph Ascomata brown or black, immersed, erumpent, partially embedded or superficial, free or on flat stroma, mostly globose to ellipsoidal, sometimes flask-shaped or flattened on hard substrata, smooth or covered with vegetative filaments. Ostiole arising centrally, papillate or with a neck. Peridium comprising pseudoparenchymatous cells of equal thickness or slightly thickened at apex. Hamathecium dense septate, filiform, branched pseudoparaphyses. Asci 2–8 spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, clavate, cylindrical-clavate or broadly fusoid, straight or slightly curved, thin-walled, often becoming more or less distended prior to dehiscence, short pedicellate, rounded at apex. Ascospores fasciculate, filiform or flageliform, hyaline or sometimes pale yellow or pale brown at maturity, septate, helically coiled within ascus, degree of ascospore coiling moderate to very strongly coiled, sometimes with free ends, often with a thin mucilaginous sheath (modified from Manamgoda et al., 2012). Asexual morph Conidiophores pale to dark brown, single, branched, sometimes arranged in small groups, straight to flexuous or geniculate with smooth or verrucose conidiogenous node. Conidia mostly curved, canoe-shaped, fusoid or obclavate, rarely straight, 3–14 pseudoseptate (usually more than 6), hyaline, pale or dark brown, reddish brown or pale to deep olivaceous, germinating by production of one or two germination tubes by polar cells. Hilum often slightly protruding or truncate sometimes inconspicuous. Septum ontogeny first septum median to sub median, second septum delimits basal cell and third delimits distal cell.
Type species: Bipolaris maydis (Y. Nisik. & C. Miyake) Shoemaker, Canad. J. Bot. 33: 882 (1959)