Australiascaceae Réblová & W. Gams, in Réblová et al., Stud. Mycol. 68(1): 171 (2011), Indexfungorum number: IF515430

Pathogenic and saprobic on terrestrial plant leaves, branches, spathes and stipes. Sexual morph: Stromata absent. Ascomata gregarious to solitary, brown to black, conical to obpyriform, glabrous or with setae, ostiole periphysate. Setae scant, acute, thick-walled, septate, dark brown. Peridium 18–22 μm wide, becoming thick towards the base, 2-layered, fragile, of textura epidermoidea to prismatica in surface view. Hamathecium comprising septate, persistent, branching paraphyses. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, cylindrical to clavate, short-pedicellate, apex truncate, with a distinct, shallow, J- apical ring. Ascospores overlapping biseriate, hyaline, oblong to ellipsoidal, apiculate at both ends, septate, smooth-walled. Asexual morph: Hyphomycetous, Conidiophores macronematous, pale to dark brown or black, unbranched, septate. Conidiogenous cells monophialidic, ampulliform to cylindrical, subhyaline, with a minute, flared collarette. Conidia ellipsoid to cylindrical–ellipsoidal, smooth-walled, hyaline to greenish, septate, aggregated in slime or in straight to curled pseudo-chains.

Type: Monilochaetes Halst. ex Harter

Notes: The family was established in Glomerellales based on morphological and molecular DNA data, to accommodate the holomorphic genus Australiasca with its asexual morph Monilochaetes, with Dischloridium as its synonym (Réblová et al. 2011). The relationship between Monilochaetes and Dischloridium was suggested by Rong & Gams (2000). The correct name of the taxon is Monilochaetes (Maharachchikumbura et al. 2016b) as the name is older and more commonly used, especially in the plant pathological community. Based on both phylogenetic and MCC trees, the family is well-supported and related to the families Glomerellaceae, Plectosphaerellaceae and Reticulascaceae in Glomerellales and with a stem age of 256 MYA (Réblová et al. 2011, Maharachchikumbura et al. 2016b, Hongsanan et al. 2017).

Ecological and economic significance of Australiascaceae
Members of Australiascaceae are important inhabitants of commercial crops and medicinal plants. Monilochaetes infuscans causes scurf disease or soil stain of sweet-potato (Ipomea batata) in many countries (Harter 1916, Rong & Gams 2000). Monilochaetes nothapodytis is an endophyte isolated from Nothapodytes pittosporoides in China, a plant used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (Zhou et al. 2017).