Aposphaeria Berk., Outl. Brit. Fung. (London): 315 (1860)

Saprobic in terrestrial habitats. Conidiomata pycnidial, superficial, solitary, globose to subglobose, black, shining, unilocular; Wall thin, composed of an outer layer of medium brown, thick-walled textura angularis and an inner layer of smaller-celled, thin-walled hyaline tissue. Ostiole single, circular, central, depressed. Conidiophores hyaline, branched at the base, septate above, short, cylindrical, formed from the inner cells of the pycnidial wall. Conidiogenous cells enteroblastic, phialidic, integrated or discrete, determinate, hyaline, smooth, apertures apical or lateral just below septa, collarette occasionally prominent, channel minute, periclinal wall thickened. Conidia hyaline, aseptate, thin-walled, eguttulate, cylindrical or ellipsoidal, smooth. Mycelium immersed, branched, septate, brown (Sutton 1980).

Type species: Aposphaeria pulviscula (Sacc.) Sacc., Michelia 2(no. 6): 4 (1880)

Phylogenetic study: Wang et al. 2007; Gruyter et al. 2012; Hyde et al. 2013.

Notes: Aposphaeria was introduced by Saccardo (1880) without description and illustration. The type species Aposphaeria pulviscula which traditionally has been identified as Phoma pulviscula also poorly known, until now there was little molecular data for the type species. Based on the study by Boerema et al. (1996), the holotype of the basionym A. fusco-maculans was studied and considered to be A. pulviscula, while the description of A. fusco-maculans given by Boerema et al. (1996) fits the generic concept of Paraconiothyrium, the consequence confirmed soon by molecular data and in congruence with the molecular phylogeny of the culture CBS 116.16 (de Gruyter et al. 2012). Some other species in Aposphaeria have also been reported in Massariosphaeria (Farr et al. 1989; Leuchtmann 1984), but the polyphyletic nature of Massariosphaeria is well documented (Wang et al. 2007). However, de Gruyter et al. (2012) have clearly shown that A. populina Died. and A. corallinolutea Gruyter, Aveskamp & Verkley were accepted as Melanommataceae. As well as, Aposphaeria has been published as asexual morph of Melanomma. In this multigene phylogenetic analysis the strains of A. corallinolutea (CBS 131286 and CBS 131286) and A. populina (CBS 543.70 and CBS 350.82) are included. The phylogenetic relationships show that A. populina (CBS 543.70 and CBS 350.82) cluster together with Melanomma pulvis-pyrius (CBS 371.75) with 95 % ML BS and 0.98 BY PP (Fig 1). However, Aposphaeria seems to be polyphyletic genus as A. corallinolutea (CBS 131286 and CBS 131286) form a distinct clade separated from Melanomma pulvis-pyrius but still in Melanommataceae. However, the sequences of type species are unavailable in GenBank, so we can not confirm Aposphaeria is polyphyletic genus or not. From these result and followed by one fungi one name, we synonymize Aposphaeria under Melanomma in the modern classification taxa.