Aigialaceae Suetrong et al., in Suetrong et al., Stud. Mycol. 64: 166 (2009), MycoBank: MB 515957
Saprobic on submerged wood in mangroves and terrestrial habitats. Sexual state: Ascomata scattered or rarely clustered, immersed, erumpent to superficial, black, globose or conical, coriaceous to carbonaceous, ostiolate, with rounded or slit-like ostiole, apapillate. Peridium 50–130μm wide, composed of dark brown thick-walled cells. Hamathecium comprising 1.5–2 μm wide, hyaline, anastomosing, trabeculate pseudoparaphyses, embedded in a gelatinous matrix. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, obclavate to cylindrical, longpedicellate, with a non-amyloid ocular chamber. Ascospores bi-seriate, fusiform, hyaline to brown, septate to muriform, smooth-walled, slightly constricted at the septa, surrounded by an evanescent mucilaginous sheath or with caps at the ends. Asexual state: Unknown.
Notes: The family Aigialaceae was introduced by Suetrong et al. (2009) for taxa with carbonaceous ascomata without papilla, trabeculate pseudoparaphyses, cylindrical asci and ascospores with a sheath or gelatinous appendages around the apical cells. Three genera, Aigialus, Ascocratera and Rimora, all marine taxa, were included. These genera were previously referred to Massarinaceae (Lumbsch and Huhndorf 2010). Zhang et al. (2012a) commented on the wide range of morphological variation between members of Aigialaceae, with taxa sharing very few features in common. Aigialus grandis, the type species of Aigialaceae has flattened, brown, muriform ascospores, with mucilage surrounding their apices (Jones et al. 2009a). The asci are cylindrical and the hamathecium comprises narrow anastomosing pseudoparaphyses (trabeculae), while the ascomata are mostly immersed in wood and asymmetrical, forming in the same plane as the wood fibres and have an apical slit-like opening. This is quite different from the second genus presently included in Aigialaceae, Ascocratera (Suetrong et al. 2009). This monotypic genus represented by Ascocratera manglicola Kohlm., has raised superficial carbonaceous ascomata, lacking a papilla, and 1(−3)-septate hyaline ascospores surrounded by a mucilaginous sheath (Kohlmeyer 1986). The third genus, shown by molecular data to belong in the family, Rimora (=Lophiostoma mangrovei Kohlm. & Vittal), is similar to Ascocratera, with raised apapillate ascomata and septate hyaline ascospores. Despite these morphological similarities Ascocratera and Rimora are not congeneric as shown by the sequence data (Fig. 1) (Suetrong et al. 2009; Zhang et al. 2012a). The introduction of the family Aigialaceae is strongly supported (100/100 support) by phylogenetic analyses of five nuclear genes (LSU, SSU, rRNA, RPB2 and TEF1) in Pleosporales. Subsequently two additional genera, from terrestrial habitats, have been included in the family: Fissuroma and Neoastrosphaeriella (Liu et al. 2011). These two genera form a well-supported subclade in the Aigialaceae , and share morphological features with Ascocratera and Rimora , i.e. carbonaceous apapillate ascomata, trabeculate pseudoparaphyses, cylindrical asci and septate ascospores with a sheath. The genus Fissuroma was introduced to accommodate species previously assigned to Astrosphaeriella with slit-like ostioles. Further Astrosphaeriella , Lophiostoma and Massarina species should be sequenced to determine their phylogenetic relationships.

The family includes five genera and eleven species, of which three genera with marine/mangrove affinities and two only from terrestrial habitats. The family type, Aigialus, and Fissuroma are illustrated below.

Type : Aigialus Kohlm. & S. Schatz, Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 85(4): 699 (1985), MycoBank: MB 6002
Saprobic on mangrove wood, marine and with a tropical distribution. Sexual state: Ascomata gregarious, completely immersed, subglobose, laterally compressed, black, ostiolate, with a slit-like opening, apapillate. Peridium coriaceous to carbonaceous, two-layered, outer layer 50–100μm, composed of elongate cells, inner layer 30–50μm, of smaller hyaline cells. Hamathecium comprising 1.5–2μm wide, trabeculate pseudoparaphyses, unbranched at the base, anastomosing above the asci, embedded in a gelatinous matrix. Asci 8- spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindrical, long-pedicellate, with a refractive non-amyloid, apical ring. Ascospores biseriate, ellipsoidal to broadly fusiform, muriform, dark brown except for hyaline to pale brown apical cells, glabrous, with a gelatinous cap or a mucilaginous sheath. Asexual state: Unknown.
Notes : A tropical to subtropical marine Ascomycete genus found on mangrove wood, frequent in occurrence. The genus Aigialus was initially classified in the Melanommatales (Kohlmeyer and Schatz 1985) sensu Barr (1979a) because of the trabeculate pseudoparaphyses, but it was not assigned to any family in the Dothideomycetes. Hawksworth et al. (1995) assigned the genus to Massariaceae in the order Pyrenulales , based on the possession of a refractive apical ring in the ascus that is J–. Subsequently, Tam et al. (2003), based on a single gene sequence analysis, referred it to the Pleosporales , a proposal accepted by Kirk et al. (2008). Aigialus can now be classified with confidence in the Pleosporales , family Aigialaceae based on a wider taxon sampling (five species) and four gene sequence analysis. Thus the classification of this genus is resolved within a wider study of taxa in the Dothideomycetes (Schoch et al. 2009b; Suetrong et al. 2009; Zhang et al. 2012a).

Five species are accepted in the genus: A . grandis , A .mangrovei Borse, A. parvus S. Schatz & Kohlm., A.rhizophorae Borse and A . striatispora K.D. Hyde (Jones et al. 2009a).

Type species : Aigialus grandis Kohlm. & S. Schat., Trans. Br. mycol. Soc. 85(4): 699 (1985), MycoBank: MB 103973

Fig.Aigialus grandis (Material examined: THAILAND, Chanthaburi Province, Tha Mai, Khung Kraben Bay Royal Development Study Center, onmangrove wood, 28 June 2008, S Suetrong et al. (BBH 23439 with isolates BCC 2284, 32285, 32286, 32287). a Surface view of mature ascomata of A. grandis on mangrove wood. b Released ascospores from the ostiole. c Surface of wood cut to show immersed ascomata with thickwalled peridium. d Longitudinal ection through mature ascoma. e Sagittal section of ascoma. f Trabeculate pseudoparaphyses. g Cylindrical ascus. h-j Ascus with refractive apical ring. Apex of endoascus with some ascospores already released. k-l Ascospores in asci. m-s Ascospores. Scale bars: a =1 mm, b–d =500μm, e =100μm, f, k–s =25μm, g =50μm, h–j =15μm

Other genera included
Ascocratera Kohlm., Can. J. Bot. 64: 3036 (1986)
Type species : Ascocratera manglicola Kohlm., Can. J. Bot. 64: 3036 (1986)
Fissuroma J.K. Liu et al., Fungal Divers. 51: 145 (2011)
Type species : Fissuroma maculans (Rehm) J.K. Liu et al.,Fungal Divers. 51: 145 (2011)
Neoastrosphaeriella J.K. Liu et al., Fungal Divers. 51: 148 (2011) MycoBank: MB 563462
Saprobic on woody palm tissue, tropical in distribution. Sexual state: Ascomata scattered, usually immersed to semiimmersed beneath host tissue, or erumpent, black, carbonaceous, with a slit-like ostiole. Peridium composed of dark brown thick-walled cells. Hamathecium comprising 1–1.5μm wide, anastomosing, trabeculate pseudoparaphyses, embedded in a gelatinous matrix. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, obclavate to cylindrical, short-pedicellate, with a small ocular chamber. Ascospores 2–3-seriate, fusiform, hyaline when young, becoming brown to dark brown, 1-septate, constricted at the septum, spore wall verrucose when mature, surrounded by a mucilaginous sheath. Asexual state: Unknown.
Notes : A monotypic tropical terrestrial ascomycete genus found on palm petioles and forming a sister group with four other genera in the Aigialaceae (Liu et al. 2011). The genus is characterized by its semi-immersed ascomata with slit-like ostioles, obclavate asci and brown, verrucose ascospores. The genus differs from Fissuroma in having smaller obclavate asci and brown verrucose ascospores, while Fissuroma has cylindro-clavate asci and hyaline ascospores. Molecular analyses based on a combined dataset of 18S and 28S nrDNA sequences place Neoastrosphaeriella in subclade to the genera Fissuroma, Aigialus, Rimora and Ascocratera. Neoastrosphaeriella shares features with Astrosphaeriella, a genus which is basal to Aigialaceae in the Pleosporales (Schoch et al. 2009b).

Type species : Neoastrosphaeriella krabiensis Jian K. Liu et al., in Liu et al., Fungal Divers. 51(1): 148 (2011), MycoBank: MB 563463 Rimora Kohlm. et al., in Suetrong et al., Stud. Mycol. 64:166 (2009)
Type species : Rimora mangrovei (Kohlm. & Vittal) Kohlm et al., in Suetrong et al., Stud. Mycol. 64: 166 (2009)

Fig. Neoastrosphaeriella krabiensis (THAILAND, Krabi Prov., Krabi College of Agriculture and Technology, on petiole of Metroxylon sagu, 26 September 2010, J.K. Liu, JKA0050, MFLU11-1151, holotype). a Appearance of ascomata on host surface. b Section of an ascoma. c Structure of peridium. d Pseudoparaphyses. e-h Asci. i-n Ascospores. Note the sheath in young ascospores. Scale bars: a =1mm, b =100μm, c, d =10μm, e–h =30μm, i–n =10μm

Key to genera of Aigialaceae
1. Ascomata immersed or conical and crater-like, with rounded often papillate ostioles ………………….2
1. Ascomata elongate with flat tops, opening with a slit-like ostiole ……………………………………………….3
2. Ascomata immersed in a stroma, asci with a refractive apical plate in the ectoascus and a refractive ring in endoascus, ascospores dark brown, muriform with hyaline to light brown apical cells ………………………………………Aigialus
2. Ascomata conical and crater-like, on a black stroma, asci with refractive apical apparatus, ascospores hyaline, 1-septate …………………………..Ascocratera
3. Ascomata forming on black stromatic crust, superficial, asci without apical apparatus, ascospores fusiform, 3-septate …………………………..Rimora
3. Ascomata immersed to semi-immersed, ascospores 1-septate …………………………………………………….4
4. Asci cylindro-clavate, ascospores elongate-fusiform, hyaline, smooth ………………………………………….Fissuroma
4. Asci obclavate, ascospore fusiform, brown to dark brown, verrucose when mature ………………………………………Neoastrosphaeriella