Antennulariella Woron., Trudy Byuro Prikl. Bot. 8(6): 771 (1915), MycoBank: MB 221
Foliar epiphytes as sooty moulds living on insect exudates. Mycelium brown to dark brown, thin to dense, cylindrical, irregular, septate, slightly constricted at the septa, smoothwalled. Sexual state: Ascomata developing from repeated divisions of hyphae, dark brown, sessile, with a pseudoparenchymatous wall, subglobose to globose, with a robust stalk, with long, cylindrical, hyphal appendages, wide at the base, tapering to the apex, ostiolate at maturity, terminally or laterally on hyphae. Peridium thin-walled, cells brown to pale brown, of textura angularis. Hamathecium aparaphysate. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindrical, clavate to ellipsoidal. Ascospores overlapping, hyaline, 1-septate, with the upper cell slightly shorter and broader than the lower one, rounded end at both apices. Asexual state: coelomycetous, Antennariella pycnidial, terminal on long stalk, or lateral or intercalary, dark brown with pseudoparenchymatous walls, subglobose to ovoid, with ostioles. Conidia ellipsoidal, hyaline, one-celled; hyphomycetous asexual state, Capnodendron Hughes, mycelium superficial, scattered to dense, pale brown to dark brown, smooth-walled, cylindrical, branched, upright hyphae, straight or branched, septate, long, tapering to the apex. Some upright hyphae and their branches may become conidiogenous cells. Conidia in simple chains, subglobose, or ellipsoidal to cylindrical, brown to dark brown, with or without septa, slightly constricted at the septa, various lengths in multi-septate conidia, with a rounded or slight scar at one or both ends.

Notes : Antennulariella was introduced by Woronichin (1915) and now includes five species (Kirk et al. 2008, Index Fungorum 2013). Hughes (1976) has seen many collections which have characteristics similar to those of the type species as illustrated by Woronichin (1915). Phylogenetic estimates of Capnodiaceae and distribution of characters and classifications using character compatibility analysis show that Antennulariella and Acrogenotheca form one group; this group produces ascospores which have only one septum at maturity in the ascus, the spore dispersal strategy incorporates delayed states of hyphal initial germination and growth so that septation and pigmentation develop in steps, usually outside the ascus (Reynolds 1986).

Fig. Antennulariella fuliginosa (Material examined: RUSSIA, Sochi, Kraevskij Mountain, on living leaf of Ilex , 14 May 1913, Woronichin, holotype). a Herbarium specimen. b–d, h Hypha with ascomata. e, f Ascomata with long cylindrical appendage. g Hyphae. i Vertical section through ascoma. j Ascoma with ostiole. k Ascoma with a robust stalk. l Asci and ascospores (redrawn from Woronichin, 1915). Scale bars: b–d =50μm, e, f, h, i, k =20μm, g, j =10μm