Antennulariellaceae Woron., Annls mycol. 23 (1/2): 178 (1925), MycoBank: MB 80461
Foliar epiphytes as sooty moulds living on insect exudates. Subiculum dark brown to black, effuse, densely velutinous, somewhat dense or velvety, forming on the surface of leaves and twigs. Hyphae deeply pigmented at the margin, cylindrical to moniliform, or regular, septate hyphae with smooth or roughened walls. Erect hyphae dark, broad and irregularly anastomosing in a network, forming a brown to black, dense or scant covering. Sexual state: Ascomata developing from repeated divisions of hyphae, brown to dark brown, subglobose, obovoid to broadly ellipsoidal, or ovoid, sessile, or with a robust stalk, with or without appendages, ostiolate at maturity, arising from terminal or intercalary cells on aerial hyphae. Peridium thin-walled, pseudoparenchymatous. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, small, pyriform to ellipsoidal, or clavate. Ascospores minute, not numerous, irregularly arranged, ovoid, more or less oblong, hyaline, 1–3-septate, slightly constricted at the septum, with the upper half slightly shorter and broader than the lower one, rounded at both ends. Asexual state: coelomycetous or hyphomycetous (see under notes).
Notes : Antennulariellaceae, a family of sooty moulds, was described by Woronichin (1925) in Capnodiales, including
six genera with 27 species (Kirk et al. 2008), while Lumbsch and Huhndorf (2010) listed only two genera. Species in the family have a widespread distribution, and are found in warm temperate to tropical locations, where they grow as black sooty molds on plants (Cannon and Kirk 2007). The asexual states of Antennulariaceae have been recorded as pycnidial (Antennariella, Batista and Ciferri 1963) and hyphomycetous (Capnodendron, Hughes 1976, 2000). In Antennariella pycnidia are reported to be small and dark brown, with a smooth or roughened pseudoparenchymatous wall, subglobose to obovoid, terminal on a short stalk or intercalary, somewhat lateral on conidiophores, with a short neck and ostioles at maturity. Conidiogenous cells are rare and not reported by Hughes (2000). Conidia are minute, hyaline, more or less ellipsoidal and 1-celled (Hughes 1976). In Capnodendron hyphae are dark brown, cylindrical or irregular, septate, smooth or roughened. Conidiophores are scattered, or gregarious, and velutinous, straight or irregularly bent, barely different from aerial hyphae, arising as upright branches of repent hyphae or as modified upturned ends of hyphae and very variable in length, brown to dark brown, more or less cylindrical, smooth to coarsely roughened, with lateral branches terminating in a characteristic conidiogenous cell (Hughes 1976, 2000). The terminal conidiogenous cell is very characteristic and more or less ovoid with a flat terminal scar left by the fallen conidium, sessile. Conidia are brown to dark brown, somewhat pale brown to brown, holoblastic, narrowly clavate to ellipsoidal or fusiform, straight or curved or irregularly curved, slightly constricted at the septa, smooth or coarsely roughened, sometimes with longitudinal striations, gently or abruptly tapered at the base to a flattened or denticulate scar, rounded at the apex or scarred at both ends of conidia in chains. Conidia and conidiophores can anastomose with each other; the asexual state has been found attached to ascostromata, with flexuous hyphal appendages in Antennulariella (Hughes 1976, 2000). Woronichin (1925) referred this family along with Capnodiaceae and Coccodiniaceae to Capnodiales .
Antennulariellaceae may differ from these two families in having completely closed ascomata with irregular hyphae and in its conidial states. Woronichin (1925) mentions that the Antennulariellaceae were the most representative family in the order, the two fami lies (Capnodiaceae and Coccodiniaceae) with ostiolate ascomata, being the most advanced. Hughes (1976) however, reported that the ascomata of Antennulariella are ostiolate at maturity. Woronichin (1926) added Achaetobotrys as a second genus in Antennulariellaceae with two species, both referred to Limacinia by Barr (1961) and to Euantennaria by Hughes (1974). Hughes (2003) introduced the hyphomycetous sooty mould genus, Capnofrasera from New Zealand, Chile, Venezuela, Brazil, Canada and USA in the Antennulariellaceae, and compared the genus with Tomenticola , Paratomenticola , Sporidesmiopsis and Capnondendron. The family needs a detailed study of both sexual and asexual states to establish the relationships among the various genera. We tentatively include all names mentioned in Antennulariellaceae pending further studies.

Antennulariella batistae SHughes (2000) was described as a new species with a hyphomycetous synanamorph Capnodendron trichomericola, which is the type of the genus Capnodendron. We therefore synonymize Capnodendron under Antennulariella above. Antennulariella batistae is a sooty mold which occurs alongside Metacapnodium moniliforme (L.R. Fraser) S. Hughes (Fraser) Hughes (1981), Euantennaria mucronata (Mont.) S Hughes (1974) and Trichopeltheca asiatica Batista et al. (Hughes 1965) and has been reported on more than 80 hosts, including ferns, conifers, monocotyledons and dicotyledons. Capnodendron trichomericola (Cif., Bat. & Nascim.) S. Hughes is also a synonym of Antennulariella batistae. Antennariella unedonis (Maire & Sacc.) Bat. & Cif., is regarded as a synonym of Capnodium =Polychaeton (Capnodiaceae), while Microxiphium footii var. ciliolatum Sacc. is also listed as a synonym of Capnodium (=Polychaeton) (Index Fungorum 2013). Hughes (2000) lists Capnodendron and Antennariella as synanamorphs of Achaetobotrys batistae while Hughes (1976) links Achaetobotrys with Antennariella .

Antennulariella concinnata (Fraser) S Hughes (1976) is neotypified, illustrated and described by Hughes (2007) who also mentions that Heteroconium is a synanamorph. It is therefore synonymized above. There is, however, considerable confusion in such linkages, as many different sooty mold species may occur on a single host. Linkage by association alone is not good enough evidence and in future studies individual spores should be isolated and subjected to sequence analysis to establish which sexual and asexual states are the same biological species.
Type species : Antennulariella fuliginosa Woron., Trudy Byuro Prikl. Bot. 8: 769–807 (1915), MycoBank:MB224166

Other genera included
Achaetobotrys Bat. & Cif., Saccardoa 2: 49 (1963)
Type species : Achaetobotrys affinis (L.R. Fraser) Bat. & Cif., Saccardoa 2: 49 (1963)
Capnofrasera S. Hughes, N.Z. Jl Bot. 41(1): 139 (2003)

Type species : Capnofrasera dendryphioides S. Hughes, N.Z. Jl Bot. 41(1): 141 (2003)

Key to sexual genera of Antennulariellaceae
1. Ascostromata subglobose to globose, with hyphal appendages……………….Antennulariella
1. Ascostromata obovoid to broadly ellipsoidal, lacking hyphal appendages …..Achaetobotrys