Lulworthiomycetidae Dayar., E.B.G. Jones & K.D. Hyde, subclass novus,

Index Fungorum number: IF 551131

Saprobic on wood, sea grasses and marsh plants or parasites on algae. Sexual morph: Ascomata subglobose to cylindrical or ovoid to ellipsoidal, immersed or superficial, ostiolate, papillate or epapillate, periphysate. Hamathecium composed of paraphyses or internal structures absent; centrum initially filled with a hyaline pseudoparenchyma, dissolving at maturity. Asci eight-spored, cylindrical to fusiform or clavate to ellipsoidal, unitunicate, deliquescent. Ascospores filamentous or ellipsoidal to fusiform, septate; multiseptate near the apices, or evenly multiseptate, some are non-septate, hyaline, thick- or thin-walled, with or without apical chambers. Asexual morph: hypomycetous, hyphae hyaline, septatae, branched. Conidiophores micronematous or semi micronematous. Conidia filiform or ellipsoidal, septate or non septate, some are coiled, when spermatial, spermatia, enteroblastic, subglobose (Maharachchikumbura  et al. 2015).

Type order: Lulworthiales Kohlm. et al.

This new subclass is introduced for a lineage of marine fungi that are unrelated to Halosphaeriaceae (Microascales, Hypocreomycetidae). It includes the orders Lulworthiales with the family Lulworthiaceae and Koralionastetales with the family Koralionastetaceae. Spatafora et al. (1998) demonstrated that the order Halosphaeriales was polyphyletic and comprised two distinct lineages. The first clade, Halosphaeriales including 11 genera, was closely related to and is now included in the order Microascales, whereas the second clade, with Lulworthia and Lindra species, was assigned to Lulworthiaceae in Lulworthiales (Kohlmeyer et al. 2000). Members of Lulworthiales are saprobes, on wood, sea grasses and marsh plants or parasites on algae (Campbell et al. 2005). Lindra, which is composed of six species, is the only genus in the order Lulworthiales which does not have ascospores with apical chambers filled with mucus. Other genera placed in the Lulworthiales based on molecular data include Kohlmeyeriella (Campbell et al. 2002) and the algicolous genera Spathulospora (Inderbitzin et al . 2004) and Haloguignardia (Harvey 2004). Koralionastes and Pontogeneia are closely related to members of Lulworthiales, while the differences in morphological characters are expressed in the ascospores and the presence/ absence of periphyses and paraphyses. Phylogenetic studies of Campbell et al. (2009) showed that some species of Koralionastes and Pontogeneia that were sequenced group in a monophyletic clade basal to the clade of Lulworthiales. This clade represents a distinct taxonomic entity at the order level based on both molecular and morphological data. Based on molecular studies and using morphological characters, the genera Koralionastes and Pontogeneia were assigned to the new order Koralionastetales which is a sister group to Lulworthiales. The orders Lulworthiales and Koralionastetales clustered together in a well-supported clade based on combined gene data and a new subclass is introduced here as Lulworthiomycetidae. The orders in this subclass are, however, well separated. The divergence time for Lulworthiomycetidae has been estimated as 257 MYA

Type species: Lulworthia fucicola G.K. Sutherl

References

Campbell J, Inderbitzin P, Kohlmeyer J, Volkmann-Kohlmeyer B (2009) Koralionastetales, a new order of marine Ascomycota in the Sordariomycetes. Mycol Res 113:373–380.

Inderbitzin P, Lim SR, Volkmann-kohlmeyer B, Kohlmeyer J, Berbee ML (2004) The phylogenetic position of Spathulospora based on DNA sequences from dried herbarium material. Mycol Res 108(7): 737–748.

Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC, Huang SK, Abdel-Wahab MA, Daranagama DA, Dayarathne M, D’souza MJ, Goonasekara ID, Hongsanan S, Jayawardena RS, Kirk PM, Konta S, Liu JK, Liu ZY, Norphanphoun C, Pang KL, Perera RH, Senanayake IC., Shang Q, Shenoy BD, Xiao Y, Bahkali AH, Kang J, Somrothipol S, Suetrong S, Wen T, Xu J (2015) Towards a natural classification and backbone tree for Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 72: 199–301.

Spatafora JW, Volkmann-Kohlmeyer B, Kohlmeyer J (1998) Independent terrestrial origins of the Halosphaeriales (marine Ascomycota). Am J Bot 85:1569–1580.